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[下载] Wiley(2010)Mobile Handset Design
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发表于 2011-11-05 16:39:29  只看楼主 
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【成文时间】: April 19, 2010
【语言】:英语
【页数】: 589
【作者】: Prof. Sajal K. Das (Author)
【文件格式】: PDF
【文件原名】:Mobile Handset Design
亚马逊书店的介绍:http://www.amazon.com/Mobile-Handset-Design-Sajal-Das/dp/0470824670/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1320407150&sr=8-1


Contents
Perface xix
Introduction xxi
1 Introduction to Mobile Handsets 1
1.1 Introduction to Telecommunication 1
1.1.1 Basic Elements of Telecommunication 1
1.2 Introduction to Wireless Telecommunication Systems 16
1.2.1 Generation of Electromagnetic Carrier Waves for
Wireless Communication 17
1.2.2 Concept of the Antenna 17
1.2.3 Basic Building Blocks of a Wireless Transmitter and Receiver 20
1.2.4 The Need for a Communication Protocol 22
1.3 Evolution of Wireless Communication Systems 23
1.3.1 Introduction of Low Mobility Supported Wireless Phones 25
1.3.2 Introduction to Cellular Mobile Communication 25
1.3.3 Introduction to Mobile Handsets 27
Further Reading 35
2 Problem Analysis in Mobile Communication System 37
2.1 Introduction to Wireless Channels 37
2.2 Impact of Signal Propagation on Radio Channel 39
2.2.1 Reflection 39
2.2.2 Diffraction 40
2.2.3 Scattering 40
2.3 Signal Attenuation and Path Loss 41
2.3.1 Empirical Model for Path Loss 42
2.4 Link Budget Analysis 43
2.5 Multipath Effect 44
2.5.1 Two Ray Ground Reflection Model 45
2.6 Delay Spread 46
2.6.1 Coherent BW (Bc) 48
2.7 Doppler Spread 49
2.7.1 Coherence Time (Tc) 50
2.8 Fading 50
2.8.1 Large-Scale Fading 51
2.8.2 Small-Scale Fading 52
2.8.3 Flat Fading 53
2.8.4 Frequency-Selective Fading 53
2.8.5 Fast Fading 54
2.8.6 Slow Fading 54
2.9 Signal Fading Statistics 55
2.9.1 Rician Distribution 55
2.9.2 Rayleigh Distribution 56
2.9.3 Log-Normal Distribution 56
2.10 Interference 57
2.10.1 Inter-Symbol Interference 57
2.10.2 Co-Channel Interference 57
2.10.3 Adjacent Channel Interference 58
2.11 Noise 58
2.11.1 Noise in a Two-Port Circuit 59
2.11.2 Thermal Noise 60
2.11.3 White Noise 60
2.11.4 Flicker Noise 60
2.11.5 Phase Noise 61
2.11.6 Burst Noise 61
2.11.7 Shot Noise 62
2.11.8 Avalanche Noise 63
2.11.9 Noise Figure (NF) 63
Further Reading 63
3 Design Solutions Analysis for Mobile Handsets 65
3.1 Introduction 65
3.2 Diversity 65
3.2.1 Time Diversity 66
3.2.2 Frequency Diversity 70
3.2.3 Space Diversity 70
3.3 Channel Estimation and Equalization 70
3.3.1 Study of Channel Characteristics – Channel Estimation 70
3.3.2 Equalization 73
3.3.3 Equalizer Implementation 75
3.3.4 Signal Model 76
3.3.5 Types of Equalizers 77
3.4 Different Techniques for Interference Mitigation 82
3.4.1 Frequency Hopping 82
3.4.2 Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) 82
3.4.3 Cell Sectorization 82
3.4.4 Use of Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) Codec 83
3.4.5 MIMO 83
viii Contents
3.5 Channel Coding 86
3.5.1 Block Codes 87
3.5.2 Convolution Codes 89
3.5.3 Turbo Codes 106
3.6 Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) and Incremental Redundancy 108
3.7 Interleaving 108
3.8 Modulation 109
3.8.1 Analog Modulation 110
3.8.2 Digital Modulation 111
3.9 Bit Rate, Baud Rate, and Symbol Rate 119
3.10 Inband Signaling 120
Further Reading 120
4 Mobile RF Transmitter and Receiver Design Solutions 123
4.1 Introduction to RF Transceiver 123
4.2 Mixer Implementations 127
4.2.1 Design Parameters 128
4.3 Receiver Front-End Architecture 129
4.3.1 Different Types of RF Down Conversion Techniques 129
4.3.2 Homodyne Receiver 133
4.3.3 Low-IF Receiver 140
4.3.4 Wideband-IF Receiver 142
4.4 Receiver Performance Evaluation Parameters 144
4.4.1 Receiver Architecture Comparison 145
4.5 Transmitter Front-End Architecture 145
4.5.1 Power-Limited and Bandwidth Limited Digital
Communication System Design Issues 145
4.5.2 Investigation of the Trade-offs between Modulation
and Amplifier Non-Linearity 149
4.6 Transmitter Architecture Design 150
4.6.1 Non-Linear Transmitter 150
4.6.2 Linear Transmitter 151
4.6.3 Common Architecture for Non-Linear and Linear
Transmitter 152
4.6.4 Polar Transmitter 154
4.7 Transmitter Performance Measure 156
4.7.1 Design Challenges 156
Further Reading 157
5 Wireless Channel Multiple Access Techniques for Mobile Phones 159
5.1 Introduction to Multiple Access Techniques 159
5.1.1 Time Division Multiplexing 159
5.2 Frequency Division Multiplexing 160
5.3 Duplexing Techniques 161
5.3.1 Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) 162
5.3.2 Time Division Duplexing (TDD) 162
Contents ix
5.4 Spectral Efficiency 162
5.5 Code Division Multiple Access 165
5.5.1 Spectrum Spreading Concepts 165
5.5.2 Mathematical Concepts 167
5.5.3 Correlation 167
5.5.4 Auto-Correlation 167
5.5.5 Orthogonality 168
5.5.6 Implementation 168
5.5.7 Multiple Access Using CDMA 171
5.5.8 Commercialization of CDMA 172
5.5.9 Generation of a Scrambling Code 174
5.5.10 Process Gain 175
5.5.11 Different Types of Spread Spectrum Techniques 176
5.6 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Access (OFDMA) 182
5.6.1 Importance of Orthogonality 184
5.6.2 Mathematical Description of OFDM 186
5.6.3 Mathematics to Practice 188
5.6.4 Digital Implementation of Fourier Transform 189
5.6.5 OFDM History 189
5.6.6 Key Advantages of the OFDM Transmission Scheme 190
5.6.7 Drawbacks of OFDM 190
References 191
Further Reading 191
6 GSM System (2G) Overview 193
6.1 Introduction 193
6.2 History of GSM 193
6.3 Overview of GSM Network Architecture 194
6.3.1 Mobile Station (MS) 194
6.3.2 Base Station Subsystem (BSS) 196
6.3.3 Network Subsystem (NSS) 197
6.3.4 Operation and Maintenance Subsystem (OMSS) 198
6.4 PLMN and Network Operators 198
6.4.1 Hierarchy of GSM Network Entities 198
6.4.2 GSM Network Areas 200
6.4.3 Objectives of a GSM PLMN 201
6.4.4 PLMN 201
6.5 GSM Mobility and Roaming 202
6.6 GSM PLMN Services 202
6.7 GSM Interfaces 203
6.7.1 Radio Interface (MS to BTS) 203
6.7.2 Abis Interface (BTS to BSC) 203
6.7.3 A Interface (BSC to MSC) 203
6.8 GSM Subscriber and Equipment Identity 204
6.8.1 International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) 204
x Contents
6.8.2 International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) 205
6.8.3 Temporary International Mobile Subscriber Identity (TIMSI) 205
6.8.4 Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) 205
6.8.5 Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) 205
6.8.6 Location Area Identity (LAI) 206
6.8.7 Local Mobile Subscriber Identity (LMSI) 206
6.8.8 Cell Identifier (CI) 206
6.8.9 Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) 207
6.8.10 Identification of MSCs and Location Registers 207
6.8.11 PIN and PUK 207
Further Reading 207
7 GSM Radio Modem Design: From Speech to Radio Wave 209
7.1 Introduction 209
7.2 GSM Logical Channels 213
7.2.1 Traffic Channels 213
7.2.2 Signaling Channels 215
7.2.3 Cell Broadcast Channel 218
7.3 GSM Physical Channel 218
7.3.1 Mapping of Logical Channel to Physical Channel 218
7.4 GSM Bursts 219
7.4.1 Burst Structure 219
7.5 Burst RF Output Spectrum 224
7.5.1 RF Characteristics 224
7.6 Channel Allocation 227
7.7 GSM Frame Structure 229
7.8 Combination of Logical Channels 230
7.8.1 Mapping of Traffic Channels and SACCH 231
7.8.2 Mapping of SDCCH 232
7.8.3 Mapping of Broadcast and Common Channels 233
7.9 Physical Layer Processing for Logical Channel Transmission
and Reception Procedures 236
7.9.1 Traffic Channel Transmission Procedures (from Speech
to Radio Waves) 236
7.9.2 User Data Transmission Using TCH 242
7.9.3 Signaling Channel Transmission Procedures 244
7.10 Design of Transmitter and Receiver Blocks for GSM
Radio Modem 250
Further Reading 252
8 GSM Mobile Phone Software Design 253
8.1 Introduction to GSM Mobile Handset Software 253
8.1.1 Boot Loader and Initial Power on Software Module 253
8.2 Operating System Software 254
8.2.1 Symbian 255
Contents xi
8.2.2 RT-Linux 255
8.2.3 Palm 255
8.3 Device Driver Software 256
8.4 GSM System Protocol Software 256
8.4.1 GSM Mobile Handset (MS) Protocol Stack 257
8.4.2 Air Interface (Um) Protocol 259
8.4.3 Abis Interface 264
8.4.4 A Interface 264
8.5 Speech and Multimedia Application Software 265
8.5.1 Speech Codec 266
8.5.2 Audio Codec 273
8.5.3 Image 273
8.5.4 Video 275
References 276
9 GSM Mobile Phone Operations and Procedures 279
9.1 Initial Procedures after Mobile Power ON 279
9.1.1 Cell Selection 279
9.1.2 Synchronization 282
9.1.3 Flow Diagram of Initial Mobile Acquisition 283
9.2 Idle Mode 284
9.2.1 Paging and Discontinuous Reception (DRX) 284
9.2.2 Cell Re-Selection 285
9.2.3 PLMN Selection 285
9.3 Location Updating 285
9.4 Security Procedure 287
9.4.1 PIN Code Protection 287
9.4.2 Anonymity 287
9.4.3 Authentication 288
9.4.4 Encryption and Decryption 290
9.4.5 Weaknesses of GSM Security 290
9.5 Access Mode 291
9.5.1 Mobile Originating (MO) Call Procedure 292
9.5.2 Channel usage for Incoming Call Establishment 294
9.6 Handover 296
9.6.1 Handover Process 297
9.6.2 Example Handover Procedure 300
9.7 Radio Resource Control Procedure 303
9.8 Mobility Management Procedure 304
9.9 Call Routing 304
9.10 Power Control 305
9.11 Discontinuous Transmission and Reception 306
9.12 Frequency Hopping 306
9.12.1 Frequency Hopping Sequences 306
Further Reading 307
xii Contents
10 Anatomy of a GSM Mobile Handset 309
10.1 Introduction to the GSM Handset 309
10.2 Functional Blocks Inside a GSM Mobile Phone 310
10.3 Hardware Block Diagram of a Mobile Phone 313
10.4 GSM Transmitter and Receiver Module 314
10.4.1 Channel Equalization 315
10.5 Antenna 317
10.5.1 Antenna Parameters 317
10.5.2 Conventional Mobile Phone Antennas 319
10.6 Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) Module 322
10.7 Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Module 324
10.8 Automatic Frequency Correction Module 325
10.8.1 Analog VC-TCXO 325
10.8.2 Digitally Controlled Crystal Oscillators – DCXO 326
10.8.3 AFC Implementation for a Typical
GSM Handset 326
10.9 Loudspeaker 327
10.10 Microphone (MIC) 328
10.10.1 Principle of Operation 328
10.11 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) 331
10.12 Application Processing Unit 332
10.13 Camera 333
10.14 LCD Display 333
10.15 Keypad 334
10.16 Connectivity Modules 335
10.16.1 Bluetooth 335
10.16.2 USB 336
10.17 Battery 339
10.17.1 Primary Cells 339
10.17.2 Rechargeable Battery Types 339
10.17.3 Battery Charger Circuit 340
10.17.4 Sleep Mode 341
10.18 Clocking Scheme 342
10.19 Alert Signal Generation 342
10.20 Memory 342
10.20.1 Read Only Memory (ROM) 342
10.20.2 Flash Memory 343
10.20.3 Random Access Memory (RAM) 344
10.21 GSM Receiver Performance 346
10.21.1 Sensitivity and Noise Figure Requirements 346
10.21.2 Reference Interference Level 346
10.21.3 3GPP TS Requirements to TX Frequency 346
References 348
Further Reading 349
Contents xiii
11 Introduction to GPRS and EDGE (2.5G) Supported Mobile Phones 351
11.1 Introduction 351
11.2 System Architecture 351
11.3 Services 354
11.4 Session Management, Mobility Management, and Routing 354
11.5 GPRS Protocol Architecture 357
11.5.1 Transmission Plane 357
11.5.2 Signaling Plane 359
11.6 Air Interface–Physical Layer 360
11.6.1 Physical Channels 361
11.6.2 Logical Channels 361
11.6.3 Channel Allocation 363
11.7 Packet Data Transport Across Layers 366
11.8 Channel Coding and Puncturing 367
11.8.1 Puncturing 370
11.9 Cell Re-selection 371
11.9.1 Routing Area Update Procedure 371
11.10 Radio Environment Monitoring 371
11.10.1 Principles of Power Control 371
11.11 Multi-Slot Class 372
11.12 Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) 374
11.13 EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) Overview 374
11.13.1 Physical Layer 374
11.13.2 Link Adaptation 378
11.13.3 RLC Layer 379
11.13.4 Data Transfer 382
11.13.5 Medium Access Control (MAC) 382
11.13.6 Impact of EDGE Support on Air Interface and Equipments 382
11.14 Latest Advancements in GERAN (GSM/GPRS/EDGE Radio
Access Network) Standard 383
11.14.1 EDGE Evolution 383
11.14.2 Voice Services Over Adaptive Multi-User Orthogonal
Subchannels (VAMOS) 384
Further Reading 392
12 UMTS System (3G) Overview 395
12.1 Introduction 395
12.2 Evolution of the 3G Network 396
12.2.1 Synchronous and Asynchronous Network 399
12.2.2 The UMTS Network Structure 399
12.3 UTRAN Architecture 400
12.3.1 Radio Network Controller (RNC) 401
12.3.2 Node B 402
12.3.3 User Equipment (UE) 402
12.4 Different Interfaces in the UMTS System 402
12.5 Data Rate Support 403
xiv Contents
12.6 Service Requirement and Frequency Spectrum 403
12.7 Cell Structure 404
12.8 UTRAN Function Description 406
12.8.1 Overall System Access Control 406
12.8.2 Security and Privacy 407
12.8.3 Handover 407
12.8.4 Radio Resource Management and Control 407
12.9 Function Partition Over Iub 409
12.9.1 Iub Interface Function 410
Further Reading 410
13 UMTS Radio Modem Design: From Speech to Radio Wave 411
13.1 Introduction 411
13.1.1 FDD System Technical Parameters 412
13.2 Frequency Bands 412
13.3 Radio Link Frame Structure 413
13.4 Channel Structure 415
13.4.1 Logical Channels 415
13.4.2 Transport Channels 415
13.4.3 Physical Channels 420
13.5 Spreading, Scrambling, and Modulation 421
13.5.1 Down Link (DL) Spreading and Modulation 422
13.5.2 Uplink Spreading and Modulation 426
13.6 Uplink Physical Channels 427
13.6.1 Dedicated Uplink Physical Channels 427
13.6.2 Common Uplink Physical Channels 429
13.7 Downlink Physical Channels 435
13.7.1 Dedicated Downlink Physical Channels 435
13.7.2 Common Downlink Physical Channels 436
13.8 Timing Relationship between Physical Channels 443
13.8.1 Channel Number and Bands 444
13.9 Transmitter Characteristics 444
13.10 Different Channel Usage in Various Scenarios 445
13.10.1 Channel Used for Call Setup 445
13.11 Compressed Mode 446
Further Reading 447
14 UMTS Mobile Phone Software and Operations 449
14.1 Introduction to UMTS Protocol Architecture 449
14.2 Protocol Structure 451
14.3 UE Protocol Architecture 451
14.3.1 Physical Layer 452
14.3.2 Medium Access Control (MAC) 453
14.3.3 Radio Link Control (RLC) 454
14.3.4 Radio Resource Control (RRC) 456
14.3.5 Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) 459
Contents xv
14.3.6 Call Control (CC) 459
14.3.7 Mobility Management (MM) 459
14.3.8 Session Management (SM) 460
14.3.9 Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) Interface 461
14.3.10 Man Machine Interface (MMI) 461
14.3.11 Inter-Working Unit (IWU) 461
14.4 Procedures in the UE 461
14.4.1 Procedures in Idle Mode 461
14.4.2 UTRAN Selection and Re-selection 462
14.4.3 Cell Selection and Re-selection 462
14.4.4 Location Registration 463
14.4.5 Procedures in Connected Mode 463
14.5 Mobility Procedures in Connected Mode 464
14.6 Other Procedures during Connected Mode 464
14.7 Security Procedures 465
14.7.1 UMTS Security Overview 465
14.7.2 Integrity Protection 469
14.7.3 Ciphering 471
14.7.4 Weakness in UMTS Security 473
14.8 Measurement Procedures 473
14.9 Handover Procedure 475
14.10 Cell Update 478
14.11 High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) 479
14.12 High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) 482
14.13 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 482
Further Reading 484
15 Anatomy of a UMTS Mobile Handset 487
15.1 Introduction 487
15.2 Mobile System Architecture 487
15.2.1 Configuration of a WCDMA Radio Transmitter and Receiver 488
15.3 UE Hardware Architecture and Components 490
15.3.1 RF Front-End Architecture 491
15.3.2 Baseband Architecture 491
15.4 Multirate User Data Transmission 495
15.5 Implementation of UE System Procedures 498
15.5.1 Cell Search Procedure 500
15.5.2 Power Control 503
15.6 Design of the UMTS Layer-1 Operation States 505
Further Reading 507
16 Next Generation Mobile Phones 509
16.1 Introduction 509
16.1.1 Limitation of Legacy and Current Generation Wireless
Technologies (1G, 2G, and 3G) 509
16.1.2 Need for 4G Wireless Technology 510
16.1.3 Evolution of 4G 510
xvi Contents
16.2 3GPP LTE 511
16.2.1 LTE Design Goals 512
16.3 LTE System Design 512
16.3.1 RF 512
16.3.2 Layer-1/Baseband 513
16.3.3 Protocol Architecture 519
16.3.4 Procedures 519
16.4 IEEE 802.16 System 520
16.4.1 IEEE 802.16 Architecture Overview 522
16.4.2 Service Classes 528
16.4.3 Mobility Support 528
16.4.4 Power Control 529
16.5 4G Mobile System 530
16.6 Key Challenges in Designing 4G Mobile Systems and Research Areas 531
16.7 Cognitive Radio 533
16.7.1 System Overview 534
16.7.2 System Architecture 535
16.7.3 Key Challenges and Research Areas 536
Further Reading 536
17 Competitive Edge in Mobile Phone System Design 539
17.1 Introduction 539
17.2 Key Challenges in Mobile Phone System Design 539
17.3 System Design Goal 540
17.4 Protocol Architecture Design Optimization 540
17.4.1 Various Alternative Solutions 540
17.5 Hardware/Software Partitioning 544
17.6 System Performance 546
17.6.1 CPU Selection 546
17.6.2 Memory Selection 546
17.6.3 Operating System Selection 548
17.6.4 Power Down Mode 548
17.6.5 Adaptive Clocking/Voltage Schemes 549
17.6.6 Algorithm Selection 549
17.6.7 MIPS Requirement 549
17.7 Adaptability 549
17.7.1 Adaptable to Different Physical Layer Solutions 550
17.7.2 Adaptable to Different Applications 550
17.7.3 Adaptable to Different OS 551
17.7.4 Adaptable to Different Air-Interface Standards 551
17.8 Verification, Validation, and Testing 551
17.9 Productization 552
Further Reading 553
Index555

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